COMMODITIES

Commodities

Iron Ore

Composed by rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. Iron ore is a mineral substance that consists of oxygen and iron atoms bonded together into molecules, the primary forms of which are magnetite and hematite, also known as “natural ore”. Hematite is non-magnetic with a reddish colour and the most important ore of iron. Pure hematite mineral contains 69.9% iron whereas Magnetite mineral contains 72.4% of iron which is higher, but the presence of impurities on the latter results in lower ore grade, making more costly to produce concentrates that are used in steel smelters.
Used as a reduced agent in smelting iron ore in the blast furnace to produce pig iron ingot. Used for the manufacture of steel.

Pig Iron

Intermediate product of the iron industry, with a very high carbon content, typically 3.5–4.5%, along with silica and other constituents of dross. It is the product resulting from the smelting in the blast furnace of iron ore, coking coal and limestone. Pig iron is made by smelting iron ore into a transportable ingot of impure high carbon-content iron in a blast furnace as an ingredient for further processing steps.

COAL

Necessary mineral as raw material in the steel industry. Used as fuel and reducing agent in the production of iron, steel and numerous other processes.

BAUXITE

It is an aluminium ore and the world’s main source of aluminium. It is a rock composed primarily of one or more aluminum hydroxide minerals. It is the world´s main source of aluminum although it needs to be refined through 2 processes. It can be used as an abrasive, propane, cement or chemical and metallurgical industries.

COKE

It is produced by the carbonization of the mineral coal at high temperatures, in order to obtain a material of high power and lumpy size. Needed to produce pig iron ingots, which in turn is necessary to produce steel.

COKING COAL

Coking coal is a derivative of coal, which allows ovens to reach temperatures up to 3,600 ° F. Produces coke, heat source and reducing agent in Blast Furnace. It is different to thermal coal which is used to generate power whereas Coking Coal is heated in a coke oven which forces out impurities to produce coke, which is almost pure carbon. Approximately 70% of the world’s steel production is dependent on coking coal.

METALLURGICAL COKE

It is the basic combustion that is consumed in a high furnace for the melting of iron.
Coke is coal that has been degasified in a coke mill. It provides the heat and gases necessary to melt and reduce the iron ore.

STEELMAKING PIG IRON

To produce steel from Pig iron, impurities like carbon, Manganese, silicon, phosphorous, and sulfur among others must be removed. The high content in carbon makes this metal to melt down all of the sudden instead of slowly when heated.

NODULAR PIG IRON

Nodular Pig Iron is differentiated from other types of pig iron by its low manganese, phosphorus and sulphur contents, typically maximum 0.05% for each element. Constitutes the principal ferrous raw material in production of ductile iron castings.

Gray Iron or Grey Cast Iron

It is a type of cast iron that has a graphitic microstructure. It is the most common cast iron and the most widely used cast material based on weight. Grey cast iron’s high thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity are often exploited to make cast iron cookware and disc brake rotors.

Ferro silicon nitride

Is a grey powder bar material. It is an alloy additive in smelting of cold-rolling orientated silicon steel. Its addition increases the steel strength of ambient low temperature and improves corrosion-resistance, thermal shock resistance and abrasion resistance of steels. It is also a new excellent refractory material, which can be used, instead of expensive Silicon Nitride, for proof-water gunning materials in steel plant.

Fluorspar (or Fluorite)

It is The Most Colorful Mineral in the World. Actually, pure fluorite is colorless, but its wide range of colour variations is caused by various impurities. The colours of this mineral are very intense and electric and that is where the term fluorescence comes from. The origin of the word fluorite comes from the use of fluorite as a flux in steel and aluminum processing so metallurgical fluorspar is used as a flux in iron smelting to decrease the viscosity of slags.

Magnetite

Magnetite is a mineral and one of the main iron ores. With the chemical formula Fe3O4, it is one of the oxides of iron. It is the most magnetic of all the naturally-occurring minerals on Earth. It is mined as iron ore. It is used in coal mining operations as slurry with water to remove the heavier impurities by allowing the less dense coal to float to the surface. The magnetite can be reused in this process 90% of the time.

Manganese

Desulpherises and alloying element for strength. Is too brittle for that reason is mainly used in alloys, such as steel (around 13% of Manganese) to increase many beneficial characteristics such as higher tensile strength, hardness and durability. Manganese is an essential ingredient to iron and steel production, as this one cannot be produced without the other. It makes the steel harder, the same happens when alloyed with aluminum or copper, and it is used in the manufacture of construction materials.

Nickel Ore

It is a naturally occurring ore found in asteroids. It can be processed in a Refinery or an Arc Furnace to produce Nickel Ingots. Nickel Ore has a gritty red-tan texture, almost like sandstone and it is similar in appearance to Iron Ore although Nickel is a lighter brown, and has less blemishes. They can be distinguished by looking at the shade and any impurities. Anti-corrosion (nickel content in stainless steel 8-10%).

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